## Grade Four Common Core Standards |

Welcome to our curriculum page. Below are the Common Core Standards that we will be implementing this year. Please feel free to review what your children will be working on this year in class.

__English Language Arts__

__Reading__:**Key Ideas and Details**

· 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

· 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key

supporting details and ideas.

· 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

**Craft and Structure**

· 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

· 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

· 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

**Integration of Knowledge and Ideas**

· 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.

· 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

· 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

**Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity**

· 10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.

__Writing__:**Text Types and Purposes**

· 1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

· 2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

· 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

**Production and Distribution of Writing**

· 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

· 5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

·

6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.

**Research to Build and Present Knowledge**

· 7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions,

demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

· 8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

· 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**Range of Writing**

· 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

__Speaking and Listening:__**Comprehension and Collaboration**

· 1. Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

· 2. Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

· 3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

**Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas**

· 4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

· 5. Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance

understanding of presentations.

· 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

__Language__:**Conventions of Standard English**

· 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

· 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

**Knowledge of Language**

· 3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use**

· 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

· 5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

· 6. Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.

**Mathematics****Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

4.OA

4.OA

**Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve**

problems.

problems.

1. Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 =

5 ´ 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many

as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as

multiplication equations.

2. Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative

comparison

*,*e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown

number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from

additive comparison

*.*

3. Solve multi-step word problems posed with whole numbers and having

whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which

remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a

letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers

using mental computation and estimation strategies including

rounding.

**Gain familiarity with factors and**

multiples.

multiples.

4. Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize

that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a

given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number.

Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite.

**Generate and analyze patterns.**

5. Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify

apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself.

*For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the*

starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the

terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why

the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the

terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why

the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

**Number and Operations in Base Ten**

4.NBT

4.NBT

**Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole**

numbers.

numbers.

1. Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right.

*For example, recognize that 700*

*¸*

*70 = 10 by applying concepts of place value and division.*

2. Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

3. Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.

**Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.**

4. Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard

algorithm.

5. Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

MA.5a.

Know multiplication facts and related division facts through 12 ´ 12.

6. Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies

based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

**Number and Operations—Fractions**

4.NF

4.NF

**Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and**

rdering.

rdering.

1. Explain why a fraction

**/**

*a***is equivalent to a fraction**

*b***(**

*n***´**

*a***)**/

**(**

*n***´**

*b***)**by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the numbers and sizes of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

2. Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as

**1**/

**2**. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

**Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.**

3. Understand a fraction

**/**

*a***with**

*b**a*> 1 as a sum of fractions

**1**/

**.**

*b*a. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and

separating parts referring to the same whole.

b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g. by using a visual fraction model.

*Examples:*

*3**/*

*8*

*=*

*1**/*

*8**+*

*1**/*

*8**+*

*1**/*

*8**;*

*3**/*

*8**=*

*1**/*

*8**+*

*2**/*

*8**;*

2

2

*1**/*

*8**= 1 +*

1 +

1 +

*1**/*

*8**=*

*8**/*

*8**+*

*8**/*

*8**+*

*1**/*

*8**.*

c. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing

each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of

operations and the relationship between addition and

subtraction.

d. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

4. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.

a. Understand a fraction

**/**

*a***as a multiple of**

*b***1**/

**b**.

*For*

example, use a visual fraction model to represent

example, use a visual fraction model to represent

*5**/*

*4**as*

the product 5

the product 5

*´ (*

*1**/*

*4**), recording the conclusion*

by the equation

by the equation

*5**/*

*4**=*

5

5

*´ (*

*1**/*

*4**).*

b. Understand a

multiple of

**/**

*a***as**

*b*a multiple of

**1**/

**, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number.**

*b**For example, use a*

visual fraction model to express

visual fraction model to express

*3*

*´*

*(*

*2**/*

*5**)*

*as 6*

*´*

*(*

*1**/*

*5**), recognizing this product*

as

as

*6**/*

*5**.*(In general,

*n*´ (

**/**

*a*

*b***) = (**

*n*´

*a*)/

*b*.)

c. Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

*For example, if each person at a party will eat*

*3**/*

*8**of*

a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds

of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer

lie?

a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds

of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer

lie?

**Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal**

fractions.

fractions.

5. Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.

__[4]__

*For*

example, express

example, express

*3**/*

*10**as*

*30**/*

*100**, and add*

*3**/*

*10**+*

*4**/*

*100**=*

*34**/*

*100**.*

6.

Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100.

*For example, rewrite 0.62 as*

*62**/*

*100**; describe*

a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line

diagram.

a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line

diagram.

7.

Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size.

Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the

same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <,

and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual

model.

**Measurement and Data**

4.MD

4.MD

**Solve**

problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit

to a smaller unit.

problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit

to a smaller unit.

1.

Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units, including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table.

*For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the*

number pairs(

number pairs

*1, 12*)

*,*

(

*2, 24*)

*,*

(

*3, 36*)

*,*

2.

Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams

that feature a measurement scale.

3. Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real-world and mathematical problems.

*For example, find*

the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown

factor.

the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown

factor.

**Represent and interpret data.**

4. Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (

**1**/

**2**,

**1**/

**4**,

**1**/

**8**). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots.

*For example, from a line plot find and*

interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in

an insect collection.

interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in

an insect collection.

**Geometric measurement: Understand concepts of angle and measure angles.**

5. Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:

a. An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through

**1**/

**360**of

a circle is called a “one-degree angle,”and can be used to measure angles.

b. An angle that turns through

*n*one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of

*n*degrees.

6. Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.

7. Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle

measure.

**Geometry**

**Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines**

and angles.

and angles.

1.

Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

2.

Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.

3.

Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry

In grade 4, students study the geography and people of the United States today. Students learn geography by addressing standards that emphasize political and physical geography and embed five major concepts: location, place, human interaction with the environment, movement, and regions. In addition, they learn about the geography and people of contemporary Mexico and Canada.

1. Use map and globe skills to determine absolute locations (latitude and longitude) of places studied. (G)

2. Interpret a map using information from its title, compass rose, scale, and legend. (G)

3. Observe and describe national historic sites and describe their function and significance. (H, C)

4. Give examples of the major rights that immigrants have acquired as citizens of the United States (e.g., the right to vote, and freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and petition). (C)

5. Give examples of the different ways immigrants can become citizens of the United States. (C)

6. Define and give examples of natural resources in the United States. (E)

7. Give examples of limited and unlimited resources and explain how scarcity compels people and communities to make choices about goods and services, giving up some things to get other things. (E)

8. Give examples of how the interaction of buyers and sellers influences the prices of goods and services in markets. (E)

__Social Studies Curriculum Standards__In grade 4, students study the geography and people of the United States today. Students learn geography by addressing standards that emphasize political and physical geography and embed five major concepts: location, place, human interaction with the environment, movement, and regions. In addition, they learn about the geography and people of contemporary Mexico and Canada.

__History and Geography__1. Use map and globe skills to determine absolute locations (latitude and longitude) of places studied. (G)

2. Interpret a map using information from its title, compass rose, scale, and legend. (G)

3. Observe and describe national historic sites and describe their function and significance. (H, C)

__Civics and Government__4. Give examples of the major rights that immigrants have acquired as citizens of the United States (e.g., the right to vote, and freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and petition). (C)

5. Give examples of the different ways immigrants can become citizens of the United States. (C)

__Economics__6. Define and give examples of natural resources in the United States. (E)

7. Give examples of limited and unlimited resources and explain how scarcity compels people and communities to make choices about goods and services, giving up some things to get other things. (E)

8. Give examples of how the interaction of buyers and sellers influences the prices of goods and services in markets. (E)

__Science Curriculum Standards Grades 3 - 5__Earth and Space Science Learning Standards

· In

**grades 3–5**, students explore properties of geological materials and how they change. They conduct tests to classify materials by observed properties, make and record sequential observations, note patterns and variations, and look for factors that cause change. Students observe weather phenomena and describe them quantitatively using simple tools. They study the water cycle, including the forms and locations of water. The focus is on having students generate questions, investigate possible solutions, make predictions, and evaluate their conclusions.

Learning standards for grades 3–5 fall under the following six subtopics:

*Rocks and Their Properties; Soil; Weather; The Water Cycle; Earth’s History;*and

*The Earth in the Solar System.*

1. Give a simple explanation of what a mineral is and some examples, e.g., quartz, mica.

2. Identify the physical properties of minerals (hardness, color, luster, cleavage, and streak), and explain how minerals can be tested for these different physical properties.

3. Identify the three categories of rocks (metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary) based on how they are formed, and explain the natural and physical processes that create these rocks.

4. Explain and give examples of the ways in which soil is formed (the weathering of rock by water and wind and from the decomposition of plant and animal remains).

5. Recognize and discuss the different properties of soil, including color, texture (size of particles), the ability to retain water, and the ability to support the growth of plants.

6. Explain how air temperature, moisture, wind speed and direction, and precipitation make up the weather in a particular place and time.

7. Distinguish among the various forms of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, and hail), making connections to the weather in a particular place and time.

8. Describe how global patterns such as the jet stream and water currents influence local weather in measurable terms such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and precipitation.

9. Differentiate between weather and climate.

10. Describe how water on earth cycles in different forms and in different locations, including underground and in the atmosphere.

11. Give examples of how the cycling of water, both in and out of the atmosphere, has an effect on climate.

12. Give examples of how the surface of the earth changes due to slow processes such as erosion and weathering, and rapid processes such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

13. Recognize that the earth is part of a system called the “solar system” that includes the sun (a star), planets, and many moons. The earth is the third planet from the sun in our solar system.

14. Recognize that the earth revolves around (orbits) the sun in a year’s time and that the earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours. Make connections between the rotation of the earth and day/night, and the apparent movement of the sun, moon, and stars across the sky.

15. Describe the changes that occur in the observable shape of the moon over the course of a month.

· In grades 3–5, students expand the range of observations they make of the living world. In particular, students in these grades record details of the life cycles of plants and animals, and explore how organisms are adapted to their habitats. Students move beyond using their senses to gather information. They begin to use measuring devices to gather quantitative data that they record, examine, interpret, and communicate. They are introduced to the power of empirical evidence as they design ways of exploring questions that arise from their observations.

Learning standards for grades 3–5 fall under the following four subtopics:

1. Classify plants and animals according to the physical characteristics that they share.

2. Identify the structures in plants (leaves, roots, flowers, stem, bark, wood) that are responsible for food production, support, water transport, reproduction, growth, and protection.

3. Recognize that plants and animals go through predictable life cycles that include birth, growth, development, reproduction, and death.

4. Describe the major stages that characterize the life cycle of the frog and butterfly as they go through metamorphosis.

5. Differentiate between observed characteristics of plants and animals that are fully inherited (e.g., color of flower, shape of leaves, color of eyes, number of appendages) and characteristics that are affected by the climate or environment (e.g., browning of leaves due to too much sun, language spoken).

6. Give examples of how inherited characteristics may change over time as adaptations to changes in the environment that enable organisms to survive, e.g., shape of beak or feet, placement of eyes on head, length of neck, shape of teeth, color.

7. Give examples of how changes in the environment (drought, cold) have caused some plants and animals to die or move to new locations (migration).

8. Describe how organisms meet some of their needs in an environment by using behaviors (patterns of activities) in response to information (stimuli) received from the environment. Recognize that some animal behaviors are instinctive (e.g., turtles burying their eggs), and others are learned (e.g., humans building fires for warmth, chimpanzees learning how to use tools).

9. Recognize plant behaviors, such as the way seedlings’ stems grow toward light and their roots grow downward in response to gravity. Recognize that many plants and animals can survive harsh environments because of seasonal behaviors, e.g., in winter, some trees shed leaves, some animals hibernate, and other animals migrate.

10. Give examples of how organisms can cause changes in their environment to ensure survival. Explain how some of these changes may affect the ecosystem.

11. Describe how energy derived from the sun is used by plants to produce sugars (photosynthesis) and is transferred within a food chain from producers (plants) to consumers to decomposers.

__Life Science Learning Standards__· In grades 3–5, students expand the range of observations they make of the living world. In particular, students in these grades record details of the life cycles of plants and animals, and explore how organisms are adapted to their habitats. Students move beyond using their senses to gather information. They begin to use measuring devices to gather quantitative data that they record, examine, interpret, and communicate. They are introduced to the power of empirical evidence as they design ways of exploring questions that arise from their observations.

Learning standards for grades 3–5 fall under the following four subtopics:

*Characteristics of Plants and Animals; Structures and Functions; Adaptations of Living Things;*and*Energy and Living Things.*1. Classify plants and animals according to the physical characteristics that they share.

2. Identify the structures in plants (leaves, roots, flowers, stem, bark, wood) that are responsible for food production, support, water transport, reproduction, growth, and protection.

3. Recognize that plants and animals go through predictable life cycles that include birth, growth, development, reproduction, and death.

4. Describe the major stages that characterize the life cycle of the frog and butterfly as they go through metamorphosis.

5. Differentiate between observed characteristics of plants and animals that are fully inherited (e.g., color of flower, shape of leaves, color of eyes, number of appendages) and characteristics that are affected by the climate or environment (e.g., browning of leaves due to too much sun, language spoken).

6. Give examples of how inherited characteristics may change over time as adaptations to changes in the environment that enable organisms to survive, e.g., shape of beak or feet, placement of eyes on head, length of neck, shape of teeth, color.

7. Give examples of how changes in the environment (drought, cold) have caused some plants and animals to die or move to new locations (migration).

8. Describe how organisms meet some of their needs in an environment by using behaviors (patterns of activities) in response to information (stimuli) received from the environment. Recognize that some animal behaviors are instinctive (e.g., turtles burying their eggs), and others are learned (e.g., humans building fires for warmth, chimpanzees learning how to use tools).

9. Recognize plant behaviors, such as the way seedlings’ stems grow toward light and their roots grow downward in response to gravity. Recognize that many plants and animals can survive harsh environments because of seasonal behaviors, e.g., in winter, some trees shed leaves, some animals hibernate, and other animals migrate.

10. Give examples of how organisms can cause changes in their environment to ensure survival. Explain how some of these changes may affect the ecosystem.

11. Describe how energy derived from the sun is used by plants to produce sugars (photosynthesis) and is transferred within a food chain from producers (plants) to consumers to decomposers.

__Physical Sciences (Chemistry and Physics)__· In

**grades 3–5**, students’ growth in their understanding of ordinary things allows them to make the intellectual connections necessary to understand how the physical world works. Students are able to design simple comparative tests, carry out the tests, collect and record data, analyze results, and communicate their findings to others.

Learning standards for grades 3–5 fall under the following three subtopics:

*Properties of Objects and Materials; States of Matter;*and

*Forms of Energy*(including electrical, magnetic, sound, and light).

1. Differentiate between properties of objects (e.g., size, shape, weight) and properties of materials (e.g., color, texture, hardness).

2. Compare and contrast solids, liquids, and gases based on the basic properties of each of these states of matter.

3. Describe how water can be changed from one state to another by adding or taking away heat.

4. Identify the basic forms of energy (light, sound, heat, electrical, and magnetic). Recognize that energy is the ability to cause motion or create change.

5. Give examples of how energy can be transferred from one form to another.

6. Recognize that electricity in circuits requires a complete loop through which an electrical current can pass, and that electricity can produce light, heat, and sound.

7. Identify and classify objects and materials that conduct electricity and objects and materials that are insulators of electricity.

8. Explain how electromagnets can be made, and give examples of how they can be used.

9. Recognize that magnets have poles that repel and attract each other.

10. Identify and classify objects and materials that a magnet will attract and objects and materials that a magnet will not attract.

11. Recognize that sound is produced by vibrating objects and requires a medium through which to travel. Relate the rate of vibration to the pitch of the sound.

12. Recognize that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels from one medium to another, and that light can be reflected, refracted, and absorbed.

__Technology/Engineering__· Students in

**grades 3–5**learn how appropriate materials, tools, and machines extend our ability to solve problems and invent. They identify materials used to accomplish a design task based on the materials’ specific properties, and explain which materials and tools are appropriate to construct a given prototype. They achieve a higher level of engineering design skill by recognizing a need or problem, learning different ways that the problem can be represented, and working with a variety of materials and tools to create a product or system to address the problem.

Learning standards for grades 3–5 fall under the following two subtopics:

*Materials and Tools;*and

*Engineering Design.*

1. Materials and Tools

*Central Concept*: Appropriate materials, tools, and machines extend our ability to solve problems and invent.

**1.1 Identify materials used to accomplish a design task based on a specific property, e.g., strength, hardness, and flexibility.**

**1.2 Identify and explain the appropriate materials and tools (e.g., hammer, screwdriver, pliers, tape measure, screws, nails, and other mechanical fasteners) to construct a given prototype safely.**

**1.3 Identify and explain the difference between simple and complex machines, e.g., hand can opener that includes multiple gears, wheel, wedge, gear, and lever.**

2. Engineering Design

*Central Concept*: Engineering design requires creative thinking and strategies to solve practical problems generated by needs and wants.

**2.1 Identify a problem that reflects the need for shelter, storage, or convenience.**

**2.2 Describe different ways in which a problem can be represented, e.g., sketches, diagrams, graphic organizers, and lists.**

**2.3 Identify relevant design features (e.g., size, shape, weight) for building a prototype of a solution to a given problem.**

**2.4 Compare natural systems with mechanical systems that are designed to serve similar purposes, e.g., a bird’s wings as compared to an airplane’s wings.**